I'm a 70s kid so for me it's still Fortress, but I do see him at home anywhere.
I was thinking about the Moses and Jesus stories. Obviously Superman is a much more human figure in most ways, but with Moses and Jesus, sure they were both raised by different people but both were not the place they grew to adulthood in... Moses doesn't stay Egyptian prince, he goes back to his roots. Jesus identitifies not as Joseph's son, but as the son of God. Both very much have a true identity that has nothing to do with where they were nutured. In both their cases "Clark" is not the disguise, it's almost a mistaken identity.
I do think the point of Superman is very much a celebration of the uniqueness of humanity, but I always feel that he loves people like no human being ever could.
Anyhow, I realize Superman is more inspired by than a direct repeat of those stories, but, I never say he is not Kal El, even if he was raised by the Kents. His birth parents named him and if you buy the idea of "Perfect Memory" Superboy and Superman know Krypton well.