I can only think of one TV show that can be used as an example, and that's about 25 years old: MOONLIGHTING. The first season consisted of 6 episodes - as a mid-season replacement, that's probably what was intended. The fifth (and last) season had 13 episodes - which is probably normal for a show that was cancelled partway through the season. However, at a time when 22-episode seasons were the norm, the three seasons in between had at most 18 episodes. While some would point to various storyline or creative issues, it's not unreasonable to assume that this played a part in the show's decline and cancellation.
That's a very American-centric view of things. In Europe this happens all the time to TV shows and doesn't seem to have much affect on audiences maybe because we're used to it and don't have 22/26 episode length seasons(6 or 13 being the norm). Some shows can go years before the next is shown.